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# Solar concentrator "Diversity"

## 1. Description

The Diversity solar concentrator is a device operating on the principle of Fresnel lens collecting radiation from some region of space into 10 cm long focal spot.

### 1. Diagram with explanation

The geometric shape, which allows you to collect parallel rays in two-dimensional space is a parabola, and in three-dimensional space is paraboloid of revolution, respectively. However, paraboloid (volume ovoid bowl with the settings) is difficult to simulate in conventional home conditions, so we tried to solve the problem easier. We get the model Fresnel lens as basis, but inverted it and covered the surface of sunlight-reflecting material . To simplify the task we replaced the segments truncated paraboloid on segments truncated cones with the same length of generatrixes. Focus of concentrator converges in some straight line equal to the length of generatrixes truncated cones. Thus, solar concentrator consists of concentric mirror segments truncated cones, attached to the upper face of the base plane.

### 2. Specifications

• Diameter - 1,5 m
• Total area - 1,76 m²
• Efficient solar radiation collecting area - 1.39 m²
• Total area of ​​reflection - 1,64 m²
• Focal length - 1 m

### 3. Applications

Solar concentrator can be used for a variety of applications from getting boiling hot water for your morning coffe to using the concentated solar power for heating or electricity generation. In most common cases household-grade concentators are used for cooking food and boiling water.

Also, concentrator can fry eggs.

One of the most promising applications of solar concentrator is using it in combination with electricity-generation devices - high-efficiency solar cells or Stirling engine or steam engine in combination with a generator. EnergyTorrrent team is working on both Stirling engine and steam engine components which coud be used along with solar concentrator to generate electrcity.

1. Wind transparency - this type of concentrators are wind-proof, because its very structure contains holes allowing the wind to come through the concentrator instead of overthrowing it;
2. The relative simplicity in manufacturing;
3. Ability to make from a simple scrap materials;
4. Possibility to scale up for bigger dimensions and power.

1. When manufacturing one must precisely mark up and cut circles teeth supports;
2. It is necessary to accurately set focuses of the mirrors;

## 2. The List of Materials

# Title Un. of meas. Quantity
1 OSB-3 15 mm х 1,25 m х 2,5 m thing 1
2 Armed tape 25 m thing 1
3 Washer increased М8 thing 12
4 Screw with washer thing 4
5 Nut DIN 934 М8 thing 20
6 Spring washer М8 thing 10
7 Butterfly nut DIN 315 thing 16
8 Metal thread 50 m thing 1
9 Steel Track UD27 thing 4
10 Metal Roofing 0,4 mm 1,25 m х 2,0 m sheet 1
11 Steel Track CW75 – 3 m thing 4
12 Steel Track CW75 0,55 mm – 3 m thing 4
13 Corner equilateral 90х90х60х2 thing 4
14 Screw 3,5х45 thing 40
15 Screw 3,5х25 thing 80
16 Screw 3,5х45 thing 40
17 Turning wheel thing 4

## 3. Instruments

1. Marker
2. Roulette
3. Elbow
4. Caliper
5. Goggles
6. Gloves
7. Angle grinder
8. Electric jigsaw
10. Electric Drill
11. Multi-cutter
12. Screwdriver
13. Duster
14. Drill different sizes (∅ 4-12 mm)

## 4. Manufacturing

### 1. Modeling

Modeling of concentrator was performed in the software environment Rhinoceros:

#### 1. Solar radiation surface reflection model:

• the surface for reflection sunlight was chosen metal roofing sheet with dimensions of 1.25 m by 2.0 m as the basis;
• width of concentrated ring is 10 cm was defined as a standard;
• the calculated concentrator with a focal length equal 1 m allowed to determine the number concentric rings -6 and place them with optimization on template #1;
• pieces sizes for making reflection elements are presented in Table 2;
• drawing template are shown in pdf - mirrors and dxf mirrors formats.

ATTENTION! If you move the markup directly on the roofing sheet metal material pay attention and remember about admission to connect sectors adding 10 mm from one side of the sector!

Table. Options for making reflection elements

# Ring External diameter, mm Internal diameter, mm Removed angle of sector, °
1 224 124 9°28’
2 336 236 19°18’
3 461 361 32°8’
4 605 505 47°36’
5 775 675 64°49’
6 979 879 83°19’

#### 2. Platform model:

• as a model for the pattern #2 was chosen standard OSB plate with dimensions of 1.25 m x 2.5 m;
• previously calculated angles of reflection rings for design support elements in the amount of 8 pieces placed on the template #2;
• identified and placed on the template #2 small and large supporting rings, the latter consists of two half-sectors;
• drawing platform elements are in formats pdf osb and dxf osb.

### 2. Parts manufacturing instructions

#### 1. The surface to reflect solar radiation:

• to optimize the process we are printed the pattern #1 from file mirrors.dxf full-scale using roll plotter, and stuck it on the roofing sheet, using two-way tape;

• cut concentrated segments using the angle grinder or electric jigsaw, with set saw for metal. Smooth out the edges of the segments using grinder, multi-cutter or file;
• if it necessary, the surface of the reflection can be pasted with aluminum foil or aluminum tape.

#### 2. Platform:

• the platform is made for mounting on any sufficiently rigid material. In the prototype was used 15 mm thick OSB plate;
• to optimize the process we have printed the pattern #2 from file osb.dxf full-scale using roll plotter, and stuck it on the OSB plate, using two-way tape;
• cut all the basic elements using electric jigsaw, installed with a saw for wood. Smooth out the edges of the segments using grinder, multi-cutter or file.

### 3. Assembly instructions

#### 1. Reflection items assembling

The items are made from the roof sheet. In the experimental model used roof sheet with thickness of 0.4 mm. Picked element is the frustum. The blank of the element is truncated cone.

In the absence of the roof sheet required size of the frustum you can divide segment into sectors with adding 10 mm to connect the lasts by rivets or screws with overlap.

Scan and picked reflection element

#### 2. Platform assembling

The support elements should be placed along the radii of large ring platform with sliding the next one adjacent element by angle of 45°. The support elements are attached to the large and small ring by screws on the back of the rings so that the screws gone inside to the end of the reference element.

#### 3. Final parts assembling

The reflection elements and platform are connected by screws with washers for better fixation. Originally established smallest element. Screws are twisted in the rib of support element.

Also reflection elements can be fastened to the platform with epoxy glue.

## 6. Research & Development

This section is under development (:

## 7. Files

List of files Mirrors template:

Platform details template

## 8. Experts

Roman Pomazan, Stanislav Dzherikhov, Olexandr Taran, Bogdan Kolomiets, Denys Myroniuk

## 9. Implementations

This model has developed by the Diversity team during the first solar hackathon “SunnyDay” in Ukraine (June 21-23 2014).